英语语言学中国大学mooc作业答案

日期:2023-01-31 14:05:18

Chapter One: Invitations to Linguistics

1.1 Introduction to Linguistics随堂测验

1、Which of the following statements is NOT true?
    A、Language consists of the systems of sounds and grammar.
    B、Language is instrumental.
    C、Language is social and conventional.
    D、Language is a system of symbols.

2、The scope of linguistic study may be generally divided into ______________.
    A、descriptive linguistics and prescriptive linguistics
    B、sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics
    C、phonetics and phonology
    D、interlinguistic study and extralinguistic study

3、Saussure made the distinction between _______________.
    A、langue and parole
    B、competence and performance
    C、theoretical linguistics and applied linguistics
    D、comparative linguistics and historical linguistics

4、Chomsky made the distinction between _______________.
    A、langue and parole
    B、competence and performance
    C、diachronic linguistics and synchronic linguistics
    D、comparative linguistics and historical linguistics

5、As modern linguistics aims to describe and analyze the language people actually use, and not to lay down rules for “correct” linguistic behavior, it is said to be ___________.
    A、prescriptive
    B、sociolinguistic
    C、descriptive
    D、sycholinguistic

6、Language consists of the systems of sounds and grammar.

7、The actual production and comprehension of the speech by speakers of a language is called performance.

8、The fact that children can speak before they can read or write shows that language is arbitrary.

9、According to Chomsky, a language user’s underlying knowledge about the system of rules is called his linguistic competence.

10、linguistics is the study of a language through the course of its history.

11、A description takes a fixed instant (usually, but not necessarily, the present) as its point of observation.

12、is the study of psychological aspects of language; it usually studies the psychological states and mental activity associated with the use of language. Most problems in are more concrete, involving the study of language acquisition especially in children and linguistic performance such as producing and comprehending utterances or sentences among adults.

1.2 Design Features of Language随堂测验

1、Which of the following is NOT a frequently discussed design feature of language?
    A、Arbitrariness.
    B、Convention
    C、Duality
    D、Displacement

2、“I can refer to Confucius even though he died 2000 years ago.” This shows that language has the design feature of __________.
    A、arbitrariness
    B、creativity
    C、duality
    D、displacement

3、The design feature of __________ refers to the property of having two levels of structures, such that units of the primary level are composed of elements of the secondary level.
    A、arbitrariness
    B、creativity
    C、duality
    D、displacement

4、One of the properties of language is that a language user can understand and produce sentences he/she has never heard before. This property of language is called ________.
    A、duality
    B、productivity
    C、displacement
    D、arbitrariness

5、In broad terms, linguists agree to define language as a system of ____vocal symbols used for human communication.
    A、conventional
    B、motivated
    C、arbitrary
    D、dual

6、By is meant the property of having two levels of structures, such that units of the primary level are composed of elements of the secondary level and each of the two levels has its own principles of organization.

7、means that human languages enable their users to symbolize objects, events and concepts which are not present (in time and space) at the moment of communication.

1.3 Origins of Language随堂测验

1、holds that language originates from the uttering of instinctive sounds of pain, anger and joy.
    A、The bow-wow theory
    B、The Ding-Dong theory
    C、The pooh-pooh theory
    D、The yo-he-ho theory

2、holds that language originated from people’s imitations of animal cries and other sounds heard in nature.
    A、The bow-wow theory
    B、The Ding-Dong theory
    C、The pooh-pooh theory
    D、The yo-he-ho theory

3、The bow-wow theory is based on the fact that modern languages have some words with pronunciations which seem to echo natural souds.

4、Now linguists have known the specific origins of human languages.

5、The yo-he-ho theory explains that language originated from the cries uttered during strain of work.

6、____________ nfocuses mainly on the biological basis of the formation and development of human language.

1.4 Functions of Language随堂测验

1、When people use language to express attitudes, feelings and emotions, people are using the ____________function of language.
    A、emotive
    B、creative
    C、phatic
    D、metalingual

2、Which of the following is NOT a metafunction of language proposed by Halliday?
    A、Ideational
    B、Conventional
    C、Interpersonal
    D、Textual

3、The social functions of language do NOT include_______________.
    A、informative function
    B、interrogative function
    C、phatic function
    D、metacognitive function

4、The ______ function refers to the fact that language can be used for establishing a favorable atmosphere or maintaining social contact rather than for exchanging information or ideas.
    A、phatic
    B、directive
    C、evocative
    D、performative

5、“Language operates by rules” is a fundamental view about language.

6、When people use language to indulge in itself for its own sake, people are using the creative function of language.

7、According to Halliday’s theory of metafunctions of language, interpersonal function enacts social relationship.

8、According to Halliday's theory of metafunctions of language, language has ideational, interpersonal and textual function.

9、When people use language to indulge in itself for its own sake, people are using the poetic function of language.

第一单元语言学导论测试

1、Chomsky made the distinction between _______________.
    A、competence and performance
    B、comparative linguistics and historical linguistics
    C、langue and parole
    D、microlinguistics and macrolinguistics

2、As modern linguistics aims to describe and analyze the language people actually use, and not to lay down rules for “correct” linguistic behavior, it is said to be ___________.
    A、prescriptive
    B、descriptive
    C、sociolinguistic
    D、psycholinguistic

3、“I can refer to Confucius even though he died 2000 years ago.” This shows that language has the design feature of __________.
    A、arbitrariness
    B、duality
    C、displacement
    D、creativity

4、In broad terms, linguists agree to define language as a system of ____vocal symbols used for human communication.
    A、arbitrary
    B、motivated
    C、conventional
    D、dual

5、There are some well-known theories about the origin of language, among which______ proposes an extremely specific connection between physical and oral gesture.
    A、the oral-gesture theory
    B、the bow-wow theory
    C、the pooh-pooh theory
    D、the yo-he-ho theory

6、holds that language originated from people’s imitations of animal cries and other sounds heard in nature.
    A、The pooh-pooh theory
    B、The bow-wow theory
    C、The divine-source theory
    D、The yo-he-ho theory

7、When people use language to express attitudes, feelings and emotions, people are using the ____________function of language.
    A、recreational
    B、emotive
    C、phatic
    D、metalingual

8、Which of the following statements is NOT true?
    A、Language consists of the systems of sounds and grammar.
    B、Language is instrumental.
    C、Language is a system of symbols.
    D、Language is social and conventional.

9、By is meant the property of having two levels of structures, such that units of the primary level are composed of elements of the secondary level and each of the two levels has its own principles of organization.
    A、duality
    B、displacement
    C、productivity
    D、arbitrariness

10、All languages have three major components: a sound system, a system of lexicogrammar and a system of semantics.

11、Now linguists have known the specific origins of human languages.

12、“Language operates by rules” is a fundamental view about language.

13、When people use language to indulge in itself for its own sake, people are using the poetic function of language.

14、According to Halliday’s theory of metafunctions of language, interpersonal function enacts social relationship.

15、According to Chomsky, a language user’s underlying knowledge about the system of rules is called his linguistic performance.

16、The bow-wow theory is based on the fact that modern languages have some words with pronunciations which seem to echo natural souds.

17、A synchronic description takes a fixed instant (usually, but not necessarily, the present) as its point of observation.

18、Synchronic linguistics is the study of a language through the course of its history.

Chapter Two: Phonetics

2.1 Phonetics Introduction随堂测验

1、Pair ___________ doesn’t form a minimal pair.
    A、gap and cap
    B、pat and pad
    C、tip and dip
    D、cat and act

2、The study of the production of speech sounds is closely connected with ____________.
    A、acoustic phonetics
    B、articulatory phonetics
    C、auditory phonetics
    D、arbitrary phonetics

3、The study of the physical properties of speech sounds is closely connected with ____________.
    A、coustic phonetics
    B、articulatory phonetics
    C、auditory phonetics
    D、arbitrary phonetic

4、The study of the perception of speech sounds is closely connected with .
    A、acoustic phonetics
    B、articulatory phonetics
    C、auditory phonetics
    D、arbitrary phonetics

5、Pair is not in complementary distribution.
    A、spot and pot
    B、stop and top
    C、school and cool
    D、light and glad

6、A single phoneme always represents a single morpheme.

7、When the vocal folds are apart, the air can pass through easily and the sound produced is said to be voiced.

8、Cave and shave forms a minimal pair.

9、Phonetics studies how speech sounds are produced, transmitted, and perceived.

10、The tongue is divided into five parts: the tip, the blade, the front, the back and the root.

11、The speech sound segments that can distinguish or contrast words in sound and meaning are s. (A is the minimal or smallest distinctive linguistic unit in a language.)

12、refers to the different allophones of the same phoneme never occur in the same phonetic context. When two or more allophones of one phoneme never occur in the same linguistic environment they are said to be in .

2.2 English Consonants随堂测验

1、The classification and description of English consonants are based on ___________________.
    A、the position of the tongue
    B、narrow and broad transcription
    C、the shape of vocal tract
    D、the place and manner of articulation

2、According to the manner of articulation, [m] is a ___________.
    A、bilabial
    B、plosive
    C、nasal
    D、fricative

3、In terms of the place of articulation, the following sounds [t], [n], [z] share the feature of ____________.
    A、palatal
    B、alveolar
    C、bilabial
    D、velar

4、Which of the following sounds is a bilabial?_____________.
    A、[ g ]
    B、[ d ]
    C、[ b ]
    D、[ m ]

5、Which of the following sounds is an alveolar?_____________.
    A、[ g ]
    B、[ b ]
    C、[ d ]
    D、[ m ]

6、The difference between vowels and consonants lies in the obstruction of the airstream.

7、According to the manner of articulation, [s] is a fricative.

8、English consonants can be classified in terms of place of articulation and the part of the tongue that is raised the highest.

9、According to the manner of articulation, some of the types into which the consonants can be classified are stops, fricatives, bilabial and alveolar.

10、/d/ is a voiced alveolar stop.

11、are sounds produced by constricting or obstructing the vocal tract at some place to divert, impede or completely shut off the flow of the air in the oral cavity.

2.3 English Vowels随堂测验

1、The classification and description of English vowels are based on ___________________.
    A、the position of the tongue
    B、the shape of the lips
    C、the shape of vocal tract
    D、all of the above

2、The difference between vowels and consonants lies in ___________________.
    A、the intonation of the sounds
    B、the place and manner of articulation
    C、the aspiration of the sounds
    D、the obstruction of the airstre

3、A ____ vowel is one that is produced with the front part of the tongue maintaining the highest position.
    A、back
    B、central
    C、front
    D、middle

4、‍can be differentiated by a number of factors: the position of tongue in the mouth, the openness of the mouth, the shape of the lips, and the length of the vowels.
    A、Vowel sounds
    B、Consonant sounds
    C、Voicing sounds
    D、Devoicing sounds

5、s are sounds produced without obstruction, so no turbulence or a total stopping of the air can be perceived.

第二单元语音学测验

1、The study of the production of speech sounds is closely connected with ____________.
    A、articulatory phonetics
    B、acoustic phonetics
    C、auditory phonetics
    D、arbitrary phonetics

2、The study of the perception of speech sounds is closely connected with .
    A、auditory phonetics
    B、acoustic phonetics
    C、arbitrary phonetics
    D、articulatory phonetics

3、Pair ___________ doesn’t form a minimal pair.
    A、gap and cap
    B、pat and pad
    C、tip and dip
    D、cat and act

4、The classification and description of English consonants are based on ___________________.
    A、the position of the tongue
    B、the shape of vocal tract
    C、narrow and broad transcription
    D、the place and manner of articulation

5、According to the manner of articulation, [m] is a ___________.
    A、bilabial
    B、plosive
    C、nasal
    D、fricative

6、In terms of the place of articulation, the following sounds [t], [n], [z] share the feature of ____________.
    A、palatal
    B、alveolar
    C、bilabial
    D、velar

7、Which of the following sounds is a palatal?
    A、[ b ]
    B、[ d ]
    C、[ g ]
    D、[ j ]

8、The two sounds [ p ] and [ b ] share the same place and manner of articulation, but they are distinguished by _______.
    A、voicing
    B、tenseness
    C、roundedness
    D、position of the tongue

9、The voiceless bilabial stop in English is _____________.
    A、[ p ]
    B、[ b ]
    C、[ t ]
    D、[ d ]

10、The voiceless alveolar fricative in English is ________.
    A、[s]
    B、[d]
    C、[f]
    D、[v]

11、The difference between vowels and consonants lies in the obstruction of the airstream.

12、According to the manner of articulation, [s] is a alveolar.

13、/d/ is a voiced alveolar stop.

14、Velar sounds are made with the back of the tongue raised to touch the velum.

15、When the vocal folds are apart, the air can pass through easily and the sound produced is said to be voiced.

16、Vowels are sounds produced by constricting or obstructing the vocal tract at some place to divert, impede or completely shut off the flow of the air in the oral cavity.

17、The high front tense unrounded vowel in English is [i:].

18、Vowels are sounds produced without obstruction, so no turbulence or a total stopping of the air can be perceived.