智慧树知到英语语言学-智慧树-知到-题库零氪期末考试答案

日期:2022-01-27 09:54:24

第一章测试

1、To put it in a simple way, linguistics studies ________, meaning of linguistic units, and the use and interpretation of a sentence in different contexts.
    A、properties of speech sounds
    B、combination of speech sounds into a meaningful unit
    C、word formation
    D、sentence structure

2、To have a scientific language study, we must pursue brevity in analyzing the data and in stating our findings, which can be summarized as the standard of ________.
    A、exhaustiveness
    B、consistency
    C、economy
    D、objectivity

3、Parole refers to the abstract linguistic system shared by all the members of a speech community.

4、The reason for Frenchmen to use cheval and for English to use horse to refer to the same animal is inexplicable.

5、Of speech and writing, modern linguistics regards writing as the primary medium of communication.

6、According to Chomsky, competence is the actual realization of the performance in linguistic communication.

7、Which of the following disciplines are related to applied linguistics?
    A、education
    B、psycholinguistics
    C、physics
    D、geology

8、Unlike animal communication systems, human language is ________.
    A、stimulus free
    B、stimulus bound
    C、under immediate stimulus control
    D、stimulated by some occurrence of communal interest

9、________ has been widely accepted as the forefather of modern linguistics.
    A、Chomsky
    B、de Saussure
    C、Bloomfield
    D、John Lyons

10、By saying language is arbitrary, we mean that there is no logical connection between meaning and ________.
    A、word
    B、morpheme
    C、sound
    D、phoneme

第二章测试

1、What kind of sounds can we make, when the vocal cords are vibrating?
    A、Voiceless consonants
    B、Voiced consonants
    C、Glottal stop
    D、Vowels

2、Which one is different from the others according to manners of articulation?
    A、[f]
    B、[v]
    C、[z]
    D、[w]

3、Which of the following CANNOT be considered as a minimal pair?
    A、but-bus
    B、but-bat
    C、but-put
    D、but-cut

4、The sound /z/ can be described with “voiced, ________, alveolar”.
    A、affricate
    B、fricative
    C、labiodental
    D、palatal

5、In English, if three consonants cluster together at the beginning of a word, the combination could be the following EXCEPT ________.
    A、[spr]
    B、[stj]
    C、[skw]
    D、[spl]
    E、[sks]

6、A phoneme in one language or one dialect may be an allophone in another language or dialect.

7、The speech sounds which are in complementary distribution are definitely allophones of the same phoneme.

8、Broad Transcription is intended to symbolize all the possible speech sounds, including the minute shades.

9、The initial sound of “peak” is aspirated while the second sound of “speak” is unaspirated. They are allophones.

10、Phonetic similarity means that the allophones of a phoneme must bear some morphological resemblance.

第三章测试

1、The italicized word in the sentence “They are better fed, better housed, and better clothed than ever before” is a good example of ________.
    A、compounding
    B、blending
    C、conversion
    D、derivation

2、We can classify morphemes into ________.
    A、bound morphemes and free morphemes
    B、lexical morphemes and grammatical morphemes
    C、derivational morphemes and inflectional morphemes
    D、adjective morphemes and numeral morphemes

3、________ of the four words are good examples of compounding.
    A、hotdog
    B、blueprint
    C、blackboard
    D、mouthful

4、A(n) ________ is the smallest meaningful linguistic unit of language, not divisible or analyzable into smaller forms.
    A、morpheme
    B、allomorph
    C、word
    D、lexeme

5、The word children contains _________ morphemes
    A、1
    B、2
    C、3
    D、4

6、The italicized word in sentence ________, the italicized part DOESN'T involve conversion.
    A、His smile could not very well mask his anger.
    B、He walked carefully so as not to wet his shoes.
    C、The teacher told the students to be quiet.
    D、The book yellowed with age.

7、Most prefixes can occur as independent words.

8、Such compounds as quick-frozen, far-fetched, fresh-baked, and long-awaited are created by “a./ad. + v.-ed”.

9、In American English, compounds are NOT usually written solid as soon as they have gained some permanent status.

10、A compound can be formed by placing any lexical item in front of another.

第四章测试

1、Syntax is the study of how words and phrases are properly formed out of elements of a language.

2、Many syntactic theories have developed in response to generative syntax.

3、In the course of its development, generative grammar gradually shifted its focus from language itself to the native speaker’s knowledge of language.

4、In the generative tradition, language is usually understood to refer to the all the language structures that native speakers can generate.

5、According to Chomsky, I-language refers to a set of sentences a native speaker can use.

6、The sub-component which includes the rules governing word formation is called ________.
    A、morphology
    B、phonology
    C、semantics
    D、pragmatics

7、________ is to syntax what phoneme to phonology and morpheme to morphology.
    A、Syntactic category
    B、Sentence
    C、Utterance
    D、Meaning

8、Among the following categories, ________ are word categories.
    A、VP
    B、NP
    C、P
    D、Adj.

9、In the category of CP, letter C stands for ____________.
    A、capital
    B、complement
    C、curriculum
    D、complementizer

10、Adverbs in English can be divided into ________.
    A、manner adverbs
    B、small adverbs
    C、big adverbs
    D、sentence-adverbs

第五章测试

1、The approach to semantic study that is more concerned with the relationship between linguistic expressions and the phenomena in the world to which they refer may be called ________.
    A、Logical Semantics
    B、Linguistic Semantics
    C、Formal Semantics
    D、Cognitive Semantics

2、The Contextualist View of meaning is based on the presumption that one can derive meaning from observable contexts.

3、Meaning can be studied as ________.
    A、naming
    B、concepts
    C、contexts
    D、behavior

4、Predication analysis is to break down predications into their constituents: ________ and ________.
    A、head
    B、argument
    C、predicate
    D、complement

5、The predication of the sentence “Jack is happy” is said to consist of Jack, the _________, and happy, the predicate.
    A、argument
    B、predicate
    C、predication
    D、subject

6、The sense relations between words can be analyzed in terms of truth conditions.

7、As for gradable antonyms, the denial of one is the assertion of the other.

8、A pair of complementary antonyms is characterized by the feature that the denial of one member implies the assertion of the other.

9、The concept of REFERENCE can be regarded as a connection between the linguistic element and the non-linguistic world of experience.

10、According to the classic semantic triangle suggested by Ogden and Richards, the meaning of a word is the concept connecting the word with the real thing in the world. This concept is called Reference or Thought.

第六章测试

1、All the acts that belong to the same category act share the same purpose or the same illocutionary act, and they are the same in their strength or force.

2、Conversation participants almost always observe the CP and the maxims of the CP.

3、A sentence is grammatical concept, and the meaning of a sentence is often studied as the abstract intrinsic property of the sentence itself in terms of a predication

4、Utterance is based on sentence meaning; it is the realization of the abstract meaning of a sentence in a real situation of communication or simply in a context.

5、All the utterance that can be made to serve the same purpose may vary in their ________ form.
    A、syntactic
    B、semantic
    C、grammatical
    D、pragmatic

6、The Cooperative Principle is proposed by ________.
    A、John Searle
    B、John Austin
    C、Paul Grice
    D、John Lyons

7、The maxim of quantity requires: ________.
    A、Make your contribution as informative as required.
    B、Do not make contribution more informative than is required.
    C、Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence.
    D、Do not say something that is not relevant.

8、Most of the violations of the maxims of the CP give rise to ________.
    A、utterance meaning
    B、speech act theory
    C、conversational implicatures
    D、all of the options

9、The significance of Grice’s CP lies in that it explains how it is possible for the speaker to convey ________ is literally said.
    A、more than
    B、less than
    C、the same as
    D、none of the options

第七章测试

1、The following is the clipped words EXCEPT ________.
    A、butch
    B、cam
    C、fridge
    D、info

2、As a result of the Norman Conquest of 1066, vast quantities of ________ words were added to the English vocabulary.
    A、Roman
    B、Latin
    C、German
    D、French

3、Morphological and syntactic changes in English language including the following EXCEPT ________.
    A、change in agreement rule
    B、analogic change
    C、process of simplification
    D、loss of inflections

4、The following are the methods for the addition of new words EXCEPT ________.
    A、blending
    B、clipping
    C、back-formation
    D、meaning shift

5、The meaning of word accident has undergone the process of ________.
    A、widening of meaning
    B、narrowing of meaning
    C、meaning elevation
    D、meaning degradation

6、The word pioneer used to refer to a foot soldier who cleared the way for any army by falling trees, but now it refers to a person who goes before, preparing the way for others, as a scientist doing exploratory work. This process of change is called ________.
    A、widening of meaning
    B、narrowing of meaning
    C、meaning elevation
    D、meaning degradation

7、Which of the following words are formed by clipping?
    A、sci-fi
    B、docudrama
    C、script
    D、comfy
    E、bookkeep

8、Only words of the same parts of speech can be combined to form compounds.

9、All the former job titles with -man have been replaced by the new job titles with -person.

10、The change of grammar is caused by economy of memory.

第八章测试

1、Someone who can speak many languages is called ________.
    A、Polyglot
    B、Bilingualist
    C、Linguist
    D、Genius

2、The social factors in sociolinguistic studies do include ________.
    A、Educational background
    B、Occupation
    C、Social hierarchy
    D、Social class

3、Ethnic dialects are mainly spoken by a less privileged population, such as the ________.
    A、British English
    B、Queen’s English
    C、Black English
    D、American English

4、Code-switching can happen in ________.
    A、Hongkong
    B、Macao
    C、Germany
    D、Belgium

5、From different perspectives, sociolinguistics may be classified into ________.
    A、Sociolinguistics and sociology of language
    B、Macro-sociolinguistics and micro-sociolinguistics
    C、Broad sociolinguistics and narrow sociolinguistics
    D、Sociolinguistics and social dialects

6、Gender varieties arise because language, as a social phenomenon, is closely related to social attitudes.

7、Macro-studies are to look at society as a whole and consider how language functions in it and how it reflects the social differentiations.

8、For a sociolinguist, code-switching means the switch made by a speaker or writer from one language or language variety to another.

9、Greek does not belong to Indo-European Language Family.

10、In sociolinguistics, code-switching is the use of more than one linguistic variety in a manner consistent with the syntax and phonology of each variety.

第九章测试

1、Language is heavily tinted with its culture, and culture also affects its people’s language uses.

2、Acculturation means a continuing process whereby an individual acquires a personal identity and learns the norms, values, behavior, and social skills appropriate to his or her social position.

3、The appearance of loan words is one typical example of cultural diffusion.

4、Language and culture are closely related to each other, and it is extremely difficult to separate the two.

5、The ignorance of cultural differences will not necessarily create barriers in learning the target language and in communication.

6、Denotative meaning refers to the meaning that isn’t stated but implied; the implication of a word, apart from its primary meaning.

7、As the saying goes “A man’s home is his castle”, western people place a high value on ________.
    A、compliment
    B、proverb
    C、privacy
    D、addressing

8、Successful communication occurs when the listener can ________ from the speaker’s point of view.
    A、smell things
    B、understand the ways of knowing the world
    C、see things
    D、sense the feelings to given issues

9、In cross-cultural communication, ________ are key points to mutual understanding and can serve as the bridge that will help us transcend cultural barriers.
    A、honesty
    B、nationalism
    C、sensitivity
    D、sincerity

10、A linguistic sign may simultaneously have ________ meanings which are bound with cultural encodings or associations.
    A、denotative
    B、associative
    C、ironic
    D、connotative

第十章测试

1、The common denial that birds are animals among very young children is a typical example of over-extension.

2、Dyslexia refers to the abnormal difficulty in reading and spelling caused by a brain lesion.

3、According to the behaviorist view of language acquisition, ________ and ________ are preliminary or fundamental, and discrimination and generalization are crucial or key to language development.
    A、practice
    B、imitation
    C、pre-equipped UG
    D、inner mechanism

4、According to the interactionist view of language acquisition, language development is a result of the complex interaction between ________ and ________.
    A、the human characteristics of the child
    B、the reinforcement the child has received
    C、the environment in which the child develops
    D、the concepts the child has formed about the world

5、Many studies of children’s acquisition sequences and errors in various languages have revealed that children have some ________ for making sense of language information.
    A、grammar principles
    B、reinforcement principles
    C、operating principles
    D、reward principles

6、According to Chomsky, human beings are not biologically programmed for language and the language develops in the child with extreme attention and efforts.

7、The innatists argue that children can discover the rules and principles underneath the language by trial and error.

8、The speech contains content words and lacks function elements can be called ________.
    A、caretaker talk
    B、child directed speech
    C、motherese
    D、telegraphic speech

9、A child may get confused hearing the color of white used for paper because he originally thought it as the word only for snow. This phenomenon belongs to ________.
    A、analogy
    B、over-extension
    C、under-extension
    D、overgeneralization

10、Which of the following is the term meaning repetition of sounds, syllables, or phrases where the speaker cannot “release” the words?
    A、aphasia
    B、autism
    C、stuttering
    D、dysgraphia

第十一章测试

1、Interlanguage is defined as an abstract system of learners’ target language system.

2、The goal of contrastive analysis is to predict what areas will be easy to learn and what areas will be difficult to learn.

3、Contrastive analysis involves describing the learners’ interlanguage, then comparing the two forms to locate mismatches.

4、It is generally believed that people learn their first language consciously and acquire their second language naturally.

5、Mistakes often occur when learners fail to perform their competence, suggesting failure in ________.
    A、competence
    B、knowledge
    C、attention
    D、performance

6、________ errors occur when the learner misuses an item because it shares features with an item in the native language.
    A、interlingual
    B、intralingual
    C、transfer
    D、developmental

7、According to Krashen, ________ and ________ were two independent means or routes of second language learning.
    A、acquisition
    B、transfer
    C、learning
    D、input

8、*“I losed the game.” and “There are ten sheeps.” are illustrations of ________ and performance errors.
    A、overgeneralization
    B、cross-association
    C、transfer mistakes
    D、developmental mistakes

9、It is generally accepted that successful learners tend to use more strategies and use them more selectively and flexibly.

10、According to contrastive analysis, the greater the differences between L1 and L2, the more frequently the error will occur.

第十二章测试

1、________ produce fast and fluent speech with good intonation and pronunciation but the content of their speech ranges from mildly inappropriate to complete nonsense, often as unintelligible.
    A、Broca’s aphasic
    B、The linguistic deprivation
    C、The damage on the angular gyrus
    D、Wernicke’s aphasic

2、________ is the study of language in relation to the mind.
    A、Sociolinguistics
    B、Psycholinguistics
    C、Linguistics
    D、Semantics

3、The brain is divided into two roughly symmetrical halves, called ________, one on the right and one on the left.
    A、hemispheres
    B、cortexes
    C、stems
    D、cerebrums

4、Which of the following parts of the brain accounts for the human distinctness in the animal world?
    A、neuron
    B、brain stem
    C、cerebrum
    D、cerebral cortex

5、Which of the following methods are used to examine the behavior associated with the brain?
    A、SAT
    B、CET
    C、dichotic listening
    D、split brain studies
    E、autopsy studies

6、Left hemisphere is primarily responsible for language and there are specific language areas within the left hemisphere.

7、It has been proved that the right ear shows an advantage for the perception of linguistic signal.

8、Most right-handed individuals have language represented in the left hemisphere and left-handers have language localization in the right hemisphere.

9、In the priming experiment, both prime and target are stimuli.

10、The priming task tells us that aspects of phonology are automatically activated during word reading.

第十三章测试

1、Which event stands for the formal establishment of cognitive linguistics as a discipline?
    A、The publication of Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things
    B、The first International Cognitive Linguistics Conference was held in Duisburg Germany
    C、The publication of Metaphors We Live by
    D、The first course about cognitive linguistics was set up

2、In the metaphor “Our car has broken down”, the source domain is?
    A、House
    B、Car
    C、The house collapses
    D、Car collapses

3、Which of the following views means that “the choice of the subject of a sentence depends on the degree of the prominence of each element in the context described by the sentence”?
    A、The attentional view
    B、The experiential view
    C、The prominence view
    D、The cognitive view

4、Cognitive linguistics is born on the basis of ________.
    A、Generative grammar
    B、The opposing of generative grammar
    C、The opposing of the mainstream linguistic conversion
    D、All of the options

5、Both ________ and ________ were written by George Lakoff.
    A、Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things
    B、Language and its Structure
    C、Metaphors We Live by
    D、Foundations of Cognitive Grammar

6、Aristotle’s classical category theory has had a profound impact on ________.
    A、Philosophy
    B、Logics
    C、Humanities and social sciences
    D、Prototype theory

7、The essential feature of the traditional view of the category is the binary opposition.

8、In different cultures, the prototypes of the category “bird” may be different.

9、Metaphors are culture-related.

10、The prototype category‘s philosophical roots are based on family similarity.